See also Publications on teaching


Harlem in Disorder: A Spatial History of How Racial Violence Changed in 1935 (Stanford University Press, 2024).

Numbers Book cover

Playing the Numbers: Gambling in Harlem Between the Wars (with Shane White, Stephen Garton & Graham White) (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010).

Awarded the 2011 NSW Premier’s History Awards, General History Prize



Crimes Against Children: Sexual Violence and Legal Culture in New York City, 1880-1960 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005).



The Properties of Digital HistoryHistory and Theory 61, 4 (December 2022): 86-106. [Open Access]
(with Lincoln Mullen)
Arguing with Digital History: Patterns of Historical InterpretationJournal of Social History 54, 4 (Summer 2021): 1005-1022
law_and-history-reviewSearching for Anglo-American Digital Legal History,” Law and History Review 34, 4 (November 2016): 1047-69
1.coverDigital Mapping as a Research Tool: Digital Harlem: Everyday Life, 1915-1930,” American Historical Review 121, 1 (February 2016): 156-166 [Open access version]
3-coverThe Company’s Voice in the Workplace: Labor Spies, Propaganda and Personnel Management, 1918-1920,” Labor: Studies in the Working-Class History of the Americas 10, 3 (Fall 2013): 57-79 [Open access version]
5-cover(with Shane White and Stephen Garton)
Harlem in Black and White: Mapping Race and Place in the 1920s,” Journal of Urban History 39, 5 (September 2013): 864-880 [Open access version]
00 covers.indd(with Shane White and Stephen Garton)
Disorderly Houses: Residences, Privacy, and the Surveillance of Sexuality in 1920s Harlem,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 21, 3 (September 2012): 443-466 [Open access version]
jshcoversmall(with Shane White, Stephen Garton and Graham White)
This Harlem Life: Black Families and Everyday Life in the 1920s and 1930s,” Journal of Social History, 44, 1 (Fall 2010): 97-122 [Open access version]
00 cover.indd
Shifting the Scene of the Crime: Sodomy and the American History of Sexual Violence,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 19, 2 (May 2010): 223-242
5-coverHarlem Undercover: Vice Investigators, Race and Prostitution in the 1920s,” Journal of Urban History 35, 4 (May 2009): 486-504
journal_of_the_history_of_childhood_and_youth“Showing Its Age,” Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth 2,1 (Winter 2009): 103-109
Gender and History“Boys, of course, cannot be raped”: Age, Homosexuality and the Redefinition of Sexual Violence in New York City, 1880-1955,” Gender and History 18, 2 (August 2006): 389-416.
LHRSeduction, Sexual Violence and Marriage in New York City, 1886-1955,” Law and History Review 24, 2 (Summer 2006): 331-374
What’s Law Got to Do with it? Legal Records and Sexual Histories,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 14, 1/2 (January/April 2005): 161-185
 AMSMaking Right a Girl’s Ruin: Working-Class Legal Culture and Forced Marriage in New York City, 1890-1950,” Journal of American Studies 36, 2 (August 2002): 199-230
 jshcoversmallAge of Consent Law and the Making of Modern Childhood in New York City, 1886-1921,” Journal of Social History 35, 4 (Summer 2002): 781-798.
 4.coverSeparating the Men from the Boys: Masculinity, Psycho-Sexual Development and Sex Crime in the United States, 1930s-1960s,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 56, 1 (January 2001): 3-35.
Signs, Marks and Private Parts: Doctors, Legal Discourse and Evidence of Rape in the United States, 1823-1930,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 8, 3 (January 1998): 345-388.

…Chapters in Books

Scale and Narrative: Conceiving a Long-Form Digital Argument for Data-Driven Microhistory,” in Zoomland: Exploring Scale in Digital History and Humanities, eds Florentina Armaselu and Andreas Fickers (De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2023), 335-363.
(with Lincoln Mullen) “Navigating through narrative,” in Making Deep Maps: Foundations, Approaches, and Methods, ed David Bodenhamer, John Corrigan, and Trevor Harris (Routledge, 2021).
The Pinkertons and the Paperwork of Surveillance: Reporting Private Investigation in the United States, 1865-1940,” in Private Security and Modern States: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, ed David Churchill, Dolores Janiewski and Pieter Leloup (Routledge, 2020) (Accepted Manuscript)
“Digital Humanities,” Oxford Handbook of Law and the Humanities ed Simon Stern, Bernadette Meyler, and Maksymilian Del Mar (Oxford University Press, 2019).
“Constrained but not contained: Patterns of everyday life and the limits of segregation in 1920s Harlem,” The Ghetto in Global History: 1500 to the Present, ed Wendy Z. Goldman and Joe William Trotter, Jr. (Routledge, 2017) (Accepted manuscript)
image“The Differences between Digital Humanities and Digital History,” Debates in the Digital Humanities 2016, ed Matt Gold and Lauren Klein (University of Minnesota Press, 2016), 289-307 (online)
WHDA2013cover“Putting Harlem on the Map,” in Writing History in the Digital Age, ed Kristen Nawrotzki and Jack Dougherty (University of Michigan Press, 2013) online | (2012 version) online
Beyond Blackface(with Shane White, Stephen Garton and Graham White)”The Black Eagle of Harlem,” in Beyond Blackface: African Americans and the Advent of American Mass Culture, 1890-1930, ed W. Fitzhugh Brundage (University of North Carolina Press, 2011)

…Digital History


Digital Harlem

Part of the Black Metropolis project, Digital Harlem employs digital technology to integrate a range of sources – the case files of the Manhattan District Attorney, probation files, prison records, undercover investigations, social surveys, census schedules and the two major newspapers published in Harlem, The New York Age and The Amsterdam News – and to map that data, making it possible to visualize and explore the spatial dimensions of everyday life in Harlem.

The Digital Harlem Blog provides updates, news and feedback, and a detailed guide to how to use the site.

Models of Argument-Driven Digital History (August 2021) (co-editor with Lincoln Mullen)

Digital History and Argument Whitepaper,” (November 13, 2017) (Arguing with Digital History working group; primary co-author with Lincoln Mullen)

Tropy 1.0: Research Photo Management (with Sean Takats, Abby Mullen, Sylvester Keil, Johannes Krtek, and Kirill Stytsenko)

Graffiti Soldiers: Civil War Soldiers & Graffiti (2014-2019)


Paul Renfro, Stranger Danger: Family Values, Childhood and the American Carceral State, Journal of American History 108, 4 (March 2022): 881

Todd Presner and Caroline Luce, Mapping Jewish LA, Reviews in Digital Humanities 2, 1 (2021)

Alex Goodall, Loyalty and Liberty: American Countersubversion from World War I to the McCarthy EraAmerican Historical Review 120, (February 2015): 275-276

Susan Pearson, The Rights of the Defenceless: Protecting Animals and Children in Gilded Age America, American Historical Review 117, 2 (April 2012): 531-2.

Exhibition: Sin City: Crime and Corruption in 20th-Century Sydney, reCollections: A Journal of Museums amd Collections 6, 2 (October 2011)

Marc Stein, Sexual Injustice: Supreme Court Decision from Griswold to Roe, American Historical Review 116, 3 (June 2011): 838-39

Regina Kunzel, Criminal Intimacy: Prison and the Uneven History of Modern Sexuality, Journal of American History 96, 1 (June 2009): 128.

Crista DeLuzio, Female Adolescence in American Scientific Thought, 1830-1930, Journal of American Studies 43 (April 2009)

“Prostitutes, Runaway Wives, Working Women, Charity Girls, Courting Couples, Spitting Women, Boastful Husbands, Pimps, and Johns,” Journal of Women’s History, 20, 1 (Spring 2008): 247-57 [Review Essay]

Marcy Sacks , Before Harlem: The Black Experience in New York City, Australasian Journal of American Studies 26, 1 (July 2007): 78-80

Web Site Review: Jacob Lawrence: Over the Line; and Jacob Lawrence: Exploring Stories, Journal of American History, 94, 1 (June 2007): 366.

Jennifer Trost, Gateway to Justice: The Juvenile Court and Progressive Child Welfare in a Southern City, Journal of Social History 40, 3 (Spring 2007): 772-74.

“Don’t Box Me In,” Reviews in American History 33, 4 (2005): 539-44 [Review Essay]

Web site Review: Who Killed William Robinson – A Historical Whodunnit, Journal of American History, 91, 1 (June 2004): 349.

Angus McLaren, Sexual Blackmail: A Modern History, Journal of American History, 91, 1 (June 2004): 281-82.

“A Tale of Two Sexual Revolutions,” Australasian Journal of American Studies 21, 1 (July 2002): 98-110 [Review Essay].

Melvyn Dubofsky, Hard Work: The Making of Labor History and Janet Irons, Testing the New Deal: The General Textile Strike of 1934 in the American South, Labour History 82 (May 2002): 181-83.

“Web Review:,” New Zealand Historical Association Newsletter (December 1999-June 2000): 31-33.

Sex, Power and Justice: Historical Perspectives on Law in Australia , ed. Diane Kirkby (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1996), Law and History Review, 17, 3 (Fall 1999): 628-30

(with Kimberlee Gunning) Report on the Ninth Berkshire Conference on the History of Women, International Labor and Working Class History, 45 (Spring 1994): 139-41